The first members of this family to settle in America were the daughters of Per Sjödin Wiberg. They used the surname Wiberg and settled in the Midwest.
Anders Sjödin lived in Stockholm, Sweden, during the turn of the 19th century. (1)
Married Ingrid Petronella Hjelmberg. (See below.)
Sven Olof Sjödin, Feb. 25, 1800.
Anders Gustaf Sjödin, Jan. 14, 1802.
Lars Peter Sjödin, March 3, 1804. Died Oct. 14, 1806.
Johan Ephraim Sjödin, March 29, 1806. Died June 11, 1806.
On July 21, 1799, Anders married a widow named Ingrid Petronella Hjelmberg at the Hedvig Eleonora Church in Stockholm. (3)
Ingrid was born June 6, 1771, to Olof Hjelmberg and Anna Catharina Palm in Jönköping. (4) Olof was a soldier and at some point before 1793, the family moved to Stockholm.
On Sept. 22, 1793, Ingrid married Magnus Rundgren, who is listed as a “Stånd Drabant,” which is a type of guard. While married to Magnus, she gave birth to Catharina Johanna on June 8, 1794. However, she died on Oct. 28 of the same year. Magnus already had a daughter named Anna Helena, who was born March 22, 1788, to his wife Juliana Magnusdotter. Magnus died between 1796 and 1798. I have not found records of his death, so it seems likely that he died on a military deployment or something of that nature. He died before the creation of the 1798 household register for Hedvig Eleonora parish, which lists Widow Rundgren living at the same property where Magnus had been listed the previous year. Anna Helen is listed as her 9-year-old daughter. (5)
At the time of Ingrid’s marriage to Anders, the groom is listed as an “Extra Cancellisten,” which appears to be some sort of government clerk. A modern Swedish index for the marriage records lists his occupation as “ex. kanslist,” which would translate as “clerk.” In the baptismal records of his first two children, Anders continues to be listed as a “Cancellisten.” However, in the household registers of the same parish at the same time, he is listed as a “Secreteraren,” or secretary.
Based on the lists of witnesses at the baptisms of his children, Anders seems to have associated with other minor officials, including on listed as a royal secretary, several other secretaries, a controller, a commissioner and a choir director.
The family lived in the home where Magnus and Ingrid had lived previously. (6) It is listed as being in a section of Stockholm known as Kvarteret Kyrkogården, which would appear to be near a cemetery, judging by the name. The 1800 household register lists “Secret. Sjödin,” his unnamed wife and “Dotter Anna Hel. Rundgren.” In subsequent years, record keepers continued to list Anna Helena, but drop her last name. Interestingly, the registers never list Anders’ own children. The 1804 register only lists Anders and his wife, so it’s possible Anna Helena, who would have been 15, had moved out or simply been lumped in with Ander’s children.
In 1805, Anders seems to have changed occupations and probably his home. That year’s household register includes a listing that appears to read “f.d. kannzelister Sjödins egendom,” which would mean “former clerk Sjödin’s property. Since no names appear under this notation, it seems likely that the family had moved. (7)
A change of occupations certainly occurred by March 1806, when Johann Ephraim’s baptismal record indicates that Anders was a “Sjömannen,” or sailor. In addition, the death records of Ander’s sons who died in 1806 also list him as a sailor. These records also note the family lived at Skepparegaten, or Skipper’s Street. (8)
Unfortunately, further information is elusive. There is a gap in Hedvig Eleonora church’s household registers from 1806 and 1814 and the departure records don’t start until 1819, which makes it difficult to determine when the family left and where they went. In addition, I have not found any mentions of Anders, Ingrid or their children in indexes of Stockholm churches that cover records after 1806. (9) At this point, all that can be said of the family after 1806 is that Sven Olof enlisted in the Swedish cavalry and moved to southern Sweden in 1817.
(1) Anders appears in various church records from the Hedvig Eleonora parish in Stockholm, Sweden. (2) The births are recorded in church book CI:16 of the Hedvig Eleonora parish in Stockholm on the following pages: Sven Olof, 5; Anders Gustaf, 69; Lars Peter, 128; Johann Ephraim, 177. The deaths of the sons in 1806 are listed in Indexed records of Hedvig Eleonora parish in Stockholm Available at www.ssa.stockholm.se. (3) The marriage is recorded in Hedvig Eleonora church book EIa:3, No. 13 for 1799. (4) Ingrid’s birth appears in Jönköping Kristina parish book C:5, page 219. (5) Ingrid’s previous marriage was listed in Hedvig Eleonora church book EIa:3, No. 40 for 1793. Catharina Johanna’s birth is listed in "Sweden, Baptisms, 1611-1920," at FamilySearch.org. Anna Helena’s birth appears in Hedvig Eleonora church book CI:14, page 196. Her death appears in the parish’s book FI:5, page 201. The household register appears in Hedvig Eleonora church book AIa:10, page 237. (6) For 1800, Hedvig Eleonora church book AIa:10, page 394. For 1801, book AIa:11, page 115. In 1801, the abbreviation “pros.” is added after Anders’ name. I haven’t determined what that means. For 1802, book AIa:11, page 211. For 1804, book AIa11, page 469. (7) The 1805 registers are in Hedvig Eleonora church book AIa:11, page 520. (8) Lars Peter’s death is listed in Hedvig Eleonora church book FI:5, page 200. Johan Ephraim’s is on page 202 of the same book. (9) Many of Stockholm’s church records are indexed and available at city archives’ website at www.ssa.stockholm.se.
SVEN OLOF SJÖDIN
Sven Olof Sjödin was born Feb. 25, 1800, to Anders Sjödin and Ingrid Petronella Hjelmberg in Stockholm, Sweden. (1)
Married Karna Persdotter. (See below.)
Inger Svensdotter, born June 3, 1820.
Anders Svensson, born March 11, 1822.
Nilla Svensdotter, born April 2, 1824.
Johannes Svensson, born Jan. 7, 1829.
Lisbeth Svensdotter, born Dec. 27, 1831.
Sven was born in Stockholm and apparently raised there. When he was 17, he moved from Stockholm to Broby in the southern Swedish province of Skåne, according to records from the Östra Broby parish. It seems likely that he moved because he was assigned to that area by the Swedish military.
Sven was a hussar, a member of a light cavalry unit in the Swedish army. Sweden was at peace from the end of the Napoleonic wars through the end of the 19th century so it’s unlikely that Sven ever saw action.
On Oct. 16, 1819, Sven married Karna Persdotter in Östra Broby. Karna was born Dec. 30, 1795, to Per Åkesson and his wife Nilla Olasdotter in the town of Gryt. (3)
Karna appears to have moved out of her father’s home before 1814, when she was 19. The town’s household registers, which begin in that year, show Karna living in a household other than her father’s, probably as a boarder. (4) At some point, Karna appears to have moved from Gryt to the nearby town of Qviinge. Östra Broby parish records show she moved from Qviinge to the village of Oröd near Broby in 1817. She appears to have lived as a boarder until the time of her marriage to Sven in 1819. (5)
The couple lived in Oröd until 1823, when they moved a few miles away to Hästveda. In 1831, the parish registers indicate that the family moved from one part of Hästveda to another. (6) A few years before the 1831 move, Sven seems to have undergone a change in his status. In records following the move, he is listed as “Hus. Gefreyter” or “Gefrejter.” Today, the term indicates a military rank that’s equivalent to a corporal.
At some point during the 1840s, Sven was discharged from the military. The household register that cover 1839 to 1849 includes the notation “afsk,” which indicates a resignation or discharge. (7) These registers also indicate that Sven and Karna’s children gradually moved out during this period, mostly to Broby or Sandby. There also are notations that seem to indicate that the couple themselves spent time in Sandby. They might have owned property there because, in the 1830s and early 1840s, their children Ingar and Anders lived at a place listed as “Brukas af Hussarin Sjödin,” which seems to indicate “farm of hussar Sjödin.” (8)
Sven and Karna moved to Sandby in 1850. (9) In the household register that covers 1862 to 1867, Sven’s entry carries the notation, “Inhys. f.d. Huss.,” which indicates that he was a lodger (“inhyses”) and a former hussar (“f.d. Huss.”). If Sven had owned property in Sandby at one time, it appears to have been sold by this point. (10)
Karna died Oct. 24, 1861, in Sandby of “bröstsjukdom” – literally “breast disease.” (11)
In Sven’s final years, he continued to be listed as a lodger and former hussar in the household registers. He died on Oct. 25, 1872, in Sandby of “åld svaghet” – literally “aging weakness.” (12)
(1) Birth date and place is mentioned in several records, including the Broby household registers in Östra Broby church book AI:1, page 49. His parents appear in baptismal records of the Hedvig Eleonora parish in Stockholm, which are available in "Sweden, Baptisms, 1611-1920," at familysearch.org. (2) The births are recorded in the Östra Broby church records, which are searchable through the Demographic Database of Southern Sweden, which is available at www.ddss.nu. The database cites the sources as follows: Ingar, Östra Broby church book C:4, page 201; Anders, Östra Broby church book C:4, page 216; Nilla, Hästveda church book C:4, page 133; Johannes, Hästveda church book C:4, page4. Lisbeth’s birth does not appear in the database but appears in Hästveda church book CI:5, page 14. (3) The marriage is in southern Sweden database, which cites the as Östra Broby church book C:4, page 450. Karna’s birth is listed in Gryt church book CI:2, page 327. (4) Gryt church book AI:1, pages 10 and 15. (5) The move to Broby is listed in household registers in Östra Broby church book AI:1, page 45. (6) The move to Hästveda is noted in the town’s household registers in church book AI:3, page 31. The move within Hästveda is noted in the household registers in church book AI:5, pages 26 and 117. (7) Hästveda church book AI:7, page 55. (8) Norra Sandby household registers in church book AI:4, page 41, and book AI:5, page 41. (9) Norra Sandby household registers in church book AI:7, page 53. (10) Sandby household register in Norra Sandby church book AI:10, page 109. (11) The southern Sweden database cites the source for her death as Norra Sandby church book F:1, page 1. (12) Household register in Norra Sandby church book AI:12, page 209. His death also appears in the southern Swedish database, which cites Norra Sandby church book F:1, page 28.
Ingar Svensdotter was born on June 3, 1820, to Sven Olof Sjödin and his wife Karna Pehrsdotter in Broby, a town in the southern Swedish province of Skåne. (1)
Child: Per Sjödin Wiberg, born in 1843, probably on March 7. (2)
Ingar’s father was a Hussar, a Swedish cavalryman. In 1823, the family moved from Broby to the nearby town of Hästveda.
In 1835, when Ingar was about 15, she moved out of her parents’ home in Hästveda and lived as a boarder for about a year in the nearby village of Boarp. In 1836, she moved to the town of Sandby, which falls under the parish of Norra Sandby. The household register indicates that she lived at “Brukas af Hussarin Sjödin,” possibly a farm owned by her father. In 1838, she was joined by her brother Anders and the two lived in the same household for several years. In the Norra Sandby household register that covers 1839 to 1846, the two again appear in the location designated as their father’s property. However, Anders is listed as leaving in 1843 and Ingar’s name is crossed out, indicating that she, too, moved away. No date or destination is indicated, but Ingar appears to have moved across town because she appears in another listing at another location in Sandby in the same book. It seems likely that their father sold the property, possibly in 1843. (3)
In 1843, Ingar also gave birth to a son named Per. Ingar is listed as unmarried and the child’s father is not named.
On Dec. 26, 1849, Ingar married Per Nilsson, a farm hand. Per was born April 30, 1818, to Nils Johansson in Sandby. No births are listed for the couple in the parish records. (4)
Ingar died March 28, 1853, in Sandby of “magkrämpor,” or digestive ailments. (5)
At this point, it is uncertain what happened to her son between her death and 1857, when “Per, son af Piga Ingar Swens” moved from Sandby to the town of Broby, where he lived with his uncle Johannes Svensson for several years. (6) He does not appear in the household with Per Nilsson in the next set of household registers. However, that register does note that Per Nilsson moved to Denmark in 1857, which might have prompted the younger Per’s move to Broby. (7)
(1) Birth is recorded in the Östra Broby church records, which are searchable through the Demographic Database of Southern Sweden, which is available at www.ddss.nu. The database cites the source as Östra Broby church book C:4, page201. (2) Norra Sandby church book CI:2, page 19. Although Per’s birth records says he was born Aug. 7, he was probably born March 7, which is listed as his birth date in most records. Ingar was unmarried at this point and Per’s father is not named. After leaving Sandby, Per used his grandfather’s surname, Sjödin. This was unusual because most Swedes of the time used the patronymic system, taking their father’s first name and adding “son” to create their surname. In later years, he went by the name Per Sjödin Wiberg. At this point, the origin of the name “Wiberg” is uncertain. It has been speculated that it might be the surname of his father. (3) The move to Boarp is noted in the household registers in Hästveda church book AI:6, page 76. The siblings’ arrival appears in the household register that covers 1835 to 1838, which appears in church book AI:4, page 41. The years 1839 to 1846 are covered in church book AI:5, pages 15 and 41. (4) Marriage is recorded in Norra Sandby church book EI:1, Page 38. Per Nilsson’s birth date is recorded in the household register in Norra Sandby church book AI:6, page 15. His birth and father are listed in the southern Swedish database, citing Norra Sandby church book C:1, page 80. (5) Norra Sandby church record book CI:2, page 70. (6) Per Sjödin’s departure is listed in Norry Sandby church book B:2, page 33. The listing translates as “Per, son of young woman Ingar Swensdotter,” an indication that he was still not acknowledged by his father. (7) Per Nilsson appears in the household registers for 1854-1858 in Norra Sandby church book AI:7, page 24.
PER and BERTHA WIBERG
Per Sjödin Wiberg was born March 7, 1843, to Ingar Svensdotter in Sandby, in the southern Swedish province of Skåne. (1)
Married Bertha Nilsson and, after Bertha’s death, Elna Persdotter. (See below.)
Children with Berthe Nilsson: (2)
Emilia Charlotta Wiberg, born Dec. 14, 1869.
Ida Wilhelmina Wiberg, born March 9, 1872.
Mathilda Carolina Wiberg, born May 10, 1874. Married a man named Peterson in America.
Anna Christina Wiberg, born March 15, 1876. Died March 4, 1877.
Anna Lovisa Wiberg, born Sept. 5, 1877. Married Simon H. Johnson in America.
Berndt Wilhelm Wiberg, born April 20, 1879. Died March 22, 1880.
Bertha Kristina Wiberg, born Sept. 25, 1880. Married Otto Larsson in America.
Children with Elna Persson: (3)
Emma Paulina Wiberg, born July 9, 1894.
Hertha Elvina Wiberg, born in 1896.
Berndt Herman Wiberg, born in 1900.
Per and Elna also had children who died at birth or soon thereafter in 1892 and 1893.
When Per was born, his mother was 23 year old and unmarried. She had moved out of her parent’s home several years previously and was probably living with her brother, Anders, at the time.
The name of Per's father is unknown. The apparent lack of acknowledgement by a father presented problems under the Swedes’ patronymic naming system. In most cases, children received their surname by combining the first name of their father with “son” or “dotter.” After leaving Sandby, Per used the surname Sjödin, which came from his grandfather, Sven Olof Sjödin, a cavalryman in the Swedish army. This was very unusual. In fact, Sven’s own sons went by the surname Svensson, rather than Sjödin. In later years, Per used the double surname Sjödin Wiberg. At this point, the origin of the name Wiberg is uncertain. It has been speculated that it might be the surname of his father.
On Dec. 26, 1849, Per's mother married Per Nilsson, a farm hand from Sandby. The family lived in that town, where Per Nilsson continued working as a farmer. They do not seem to have had any additional children. (4)
Ingar died March 28, 1853, in Sandby. (5) At this point, it is uncertain what happened to her son immediately after her death. Per does not appear with his stepfather in the next household register. In addition, that register notes that Per Nilsson immigrated to Denmark in 1857, a move that might have prompted the younger Per to leave Sandby. (6)
In November 1857, the Norra Sandby church records note the departure of “Per, son af Piga Ingar Swens” for the town of Broby. (7) Interestingly, the arrival records of the Östra Broby parish list the newcomer as “Per Sjödin,” making them the first records to use that name. (8)
Per was 14 years old when he arrived in Broby and moved into the home of his mother’s brother, Johannes Svensson. Johannes was a wagon maker and was married to a woman named Johanna Johnsdotter. Per lived with the family for about two years. He probably wasn’t involved in an occupation because the household register lists has as a “boy.” (9)
In 1859, Johannes’ family moved to a different location in Broby and Per moved to the household of a coppersmith named Magnus Hallström, who also lived in Broby. (10) The 16-year-old Per appears to have worked for the coppersmith even though he was not listed among the apprentices. In the household register, he is listed as a “dräng,” which normally designates a farmhand or bachelor. However, when Per left Broby in 1860, the departure record lists him as an apprentice coppersmith. (11)
In November 1860, Per moved to the town of Winslöv, which is now spelled Vinslöv. Although his arrival record and an early household register list Per as a coppersmith, he was actually still an apprentice, or “lärling.” (12) While in Winslöv, Per lived in the household of coppersmith Carl Magnus Nordström. (13)
In March 1862, Nordström moved from Winslöv to the city of Lund and took his young apprentice along with him. Per worked with Nordström for another two years. (14)
In August 1864, Per moved across the city to work for another coppersmith, Carl Magnus Ryberg. (15) In the record of the move, Per’s name is preceded by the designation “Ges,” which is short for “gesäll,” or journeyman. In addition, Per’s surname is listed as Sjödin Wiberg, the first use of that name. At this point, it’s unknown why Per added the surname Wiberg while living in Lund. Interestingly, Lund is also the first parish to list what appears to be Per’s correct date of birth, March 7. It’s conceivable that he discovered information about his birth and father about this time, prompting him to make the changes.
After less than a year of working with Ryberg, Per returned to Nordström in March 1865. Interestingly, Per’s return was covered by the same register as his previous stay in the household. The record keeper had already crossed out Per’s name, so he had to add it again – this time with his new designation as journeyman and his expanded surname. (16)
In September 1866, Per left Lund for the city of Malmo. (17) Per’s arrival is noted in the records of Sankt Petri parish, which indicate he was still a journeyman. In November 1867, Per transferred to the Malmo Caroli parish. (18)
On June 5, 1869, Per married Bertha Nilsdotter at Malmo Caroli. (19)
Bertha was born Oct. 15, 1841, to Nils Nilsson and his wife Kjersti Pehrsdotter. (20) Nils was a tenant famer in the village of Fjerdingslöf – now spelled Fjärdingslöv – which falls under the parish of Gylle in Skåne. (21)
Bertha left Fjerdingslöf for the city of Malmo in 1858, when she was 17 years old. For the next 11 years, Bertha moved around within Malmo and switched her church membership between the Sankt Petri and Caroli parishes several times. She also appears to have held several jobs, including factory worker and some sort of job at a hospital. (22)
After they were married, the couple lived in Malmo in four years and Bertha gave birth to two of their children, Emilia and Ida. According to family tradition, a childhood illness left Ida deaf.
In October 1873, the family left Malmo and moved to the city of Kristianstad, where their arrival is noted in December in the Kristianstad Stad parish records. (23) The family lived in Kristianstad for four years and Bertha gave birth to three daughters – Mathilda, Anna Christina and Anna Lovisa. Sadly, their daughter Anna Christina died of whooping cough when she was a little less than a year old. (24)
All of the records from Kristianstad refer to Per as a “kopparslagare” without a notation that he’s a journeyman, so it seems that he had become a full-fledged coppersmith by this point. Family tradition mentions Per’s work as a craftsman. His masterpiece was a coffee service set, which he presented to Bertha upon their engagement. The set was later presented to Bertha Larson because she was Bertha Wiberg’s youngest daughter. The set was later presented to Grace Blomberg, who was Bertha Larson’s youngest daughter. (25) Grace passed it on to her daughter, but the set was then lost in a house fire. Another copper service set that Per made is owned by his great-granddaughter Grace Reishus.
In October 1877, the family left Kristianstad and moved to Broby, the town where Per had lived with his uncle as a teenager and started his training as a coppersmith. (26)
While living in Broby, Bertha gave birth to two children, Berndt Wilhelm and Bertha Kristina. Berndt died when he was only 11 months old. (27)
Per continued to work as a coppersmith. In addition, family tradition attributes a number of other activities to Per, including owning a farm, making soft drinks during the summers and serving as mayor of Broby. According to one account, Per owned a soft-drink business, which was passed on to his son Herman.
In 1888, the family moved a few miles away, to the village of Westraby in the parish of Emmislöv. (28)
On Feb. 11, 1889, tragedy struck the family again and Bertha died of tuberculosis at age 47. (29)
As was usual at the time, Per didn’t wait too long to remarry. On March 25, 1890, he married Elna Persdotter. Elna was born Sept. 16, 1855, to Pehr Larsson and Pernilla Jönsdotter in Westraby. Although she was 35 years old, it was her first marriage. (30)
The family moved back to Broby in 1890. (31) There, Elna gave birth to two children who died at or soon after birth in 1892 and 1893. No names are recorded for either child. Elna then gave birth to Emma Paulina, Hertha Elvina and Berndt Herman. (32)
According to family tradition, Elna was often cruel to Bertha’s daughters. Emilia, Anna, Mathilda and Bertha eventually immigrated to the United States. (33)
Per died on Oct. 27, 1920. Elna died April 3, 1924. Both are buried at the church in Broby. (34)
(1) Per's birth is recorded in the Norra Sandby church book C:2, page 19. None of the records that have turned up so far mentions the name of his father. His birth record and most of the other records from the early years of his life list his birth date at Aug. 7. However, all of the records from his stay in the city of Lund through his death list it as March 7. (Interestingly, Lund is also the first place where he uses the name surname Wiberg.) It seems pretty certain that Per was actually born on March7. It seems likely that the record keeper was confused, thinking that the birth occurred in August because the baptism was on Aug. 13. Swedes in that time and place generally had their children baptized days, not months, after birth. It also seems likely that later record keepers simply kept copying the incorrect date until Per was old enough to correct the mistake. Per's tombstone uses the March date. (2) Births of Bertha’s children and the deaths of two of them are found in the Demografisk Databas Södra Sverige, or Demographic Database of Southern Sweden, which is available at www.ddss.nu. The database’s sources for the births are as follows: Emilia Charlotta,Marlmo Caroli church book CI:11, page 670; Ida Wilhelmina, Marlmo Caroli CI:12, page 142; Mathilda Carolina, Kristianstads Stad C:15, page 127; Anna Christina Karistianstads Stad C:15, page 182, and death is in F:5, page 123; Anna Lovisa, C:15, page 228; Berndt Wilhelm, Östra Broby C:9, page 353, and death is in Östra Broby F:2, page 199; and Bertha Kristina, Östra Broby C:9, page 381. The spouses for Bertha and Anna Lovisa are mentioned in Cook County, Ill., marriage index available at ancestry.com. The last name of Mathilda’s husband is known from passenger information provided by Anna and Bertha when they immigrated to the United States aboard the ship Ivernia, which arrived in Boston on Oct. 1, 1901. The two women said they were going to the home of their sister Tilley Peterson. The information is available at ancestry.com. Cook County, Ill., marriage records available through familysearch.org, list the marriage of a Mathilda Wiberg to an Andrew Peterson on Jan. 20, 1894, but it’s uncertain whether this is the correct couple. (3) Hertha Elvina and Berndt Herman are listed in the 1900 Swedish census of Broby, which is available through the Swedish archive’s website at www.svar.ra.se. The other births and deaths listed here are found in the southern Swedish database. It cites as its source for Emma Paulina, Östra Broby church book C:11, page 61. The births of the unnamed children are in C:11, page 27 and 41. (4) Ingar and Per’s marriage is recorded in Norra Sandby church book EI:1, Page 38. Other family information is recorded in the household register in Norra Sandby church book AI:6, page 15. Per Nilsson is listed as a “Torp.,” an abbreviation that usually indicates a crofter, or peasant. (5) Norra Sandby church book CI:2, page 70. (6) Per Nilsson appears in the household registers for 1854-1858 in Norra Sandby church book AI:7, page 24. (7) Per Sjödin’s departure is listed in Norry Sandby church book B:2, page 33. “Per, son af Piga Ingar Swens” means “Per, son of young woman Ingar Swensdotter.” (8) Arrival record is in Östra Broby church book B:1, under 1857. (9) Household register in Östra Broby church book AI:9, page 21. (10) Also in Östra Broby church book AI:9. The coppersmith is on page 29 and Johannes appears on page 54. Per remains at the same location in the follow register, which covers 1860 to 1868, in church book AI:10, page 72. (11) Departure is in Östra Broby church book B:1, page 93. The record lists him as a “Koppsl. lärl.,” an abbreviation for “kopparslagare lärling,” or coppersmith apprentice. (12) Arrival is in Vinslöv church book B:3, page 55. (13) The household register listing for 1856 to 1860 are in Vinslöv church book AI:13, page 280. The register for 1861 to 1867 is in church book AI:14, page 319. (14) The two appear next to each other in the departure listings, leaving the same day, from the same place and heading to the same destination. It appears in Vinslöv church book B:4, page 1. The Lund household register is in Lund’s Dom church book AI:51, page 99. (15) The move is recorded in Lund’s Dom church book BI:5, page 207. The household register that mentions Ryberg appears in Lund’s Dom church book AI:53, page 254. (16) The move back to Nordström’s household is recorded in Lund’s Dom church book BI:5, page 307. (17) The departure is listed in Lund’s Dom church book BI:5, page 311. The arrival appears in Malmo Sankt Petri church book BI:4, page 196. (18) Arrival is listed in Malmo Caroli church book BI:4, page 239. Per is listed as a coppersmith but later records indicate he was still a journeyman. (19) The marriage is recorded in Malmo Caroli church book EI:5, page 98. (20) Bertha’s birth is listed in Gylle church book CI:3, page 83. (21) The family is listed in household registers in Gylle church book AI:5, page 59. (22) Bertha’s departure for Malmo is noted in the household register in Gylle church book AI:7, page 52. She appears in household registers of Malmo Caroli parish from 1863 to 1864 in church book AI:12, page 53; and Sankt Petri in 1865 in church book Aid:7, page 245. Arrivals and departures to and from the two parishes are listed in Sankt Petri books BI4, pages 98 and 162; and Caroli book BI:4, pages 51, 94 and 127. (23) The departure is noted in Malmo Caroli church book BI:5, page 77. The arrival is in Kristianstad Stad congregation’s church book B:8, page 110. (24) The listing in the household register appears in the Kristianstad Stad parish’s book AI:22, page 1686. Anna Christina’s death appears in the southern Sweden database, which cites Kristianstad Stad church book F:5, page 123. (25) The family traditions were passed along in a questionnaire filled out by Per’s granddaughters Grace (Larson) Blomberg and Olga (Larson) Kvarnberg in the late 1980s. Both were daughters of Berthan Christina (Wiberg) Larson. Grace provided information on Per’s work as a coppersmith. (26) The departure is recorded in the Kristianstad Stad parish’s book B:8, page 172. (27) Berndt Wilhelm’s death is found in the southern Swedish database, which cites Östra Broby church book F-2, page 199. (28) The move is mentioned in household register in Östra Broby church book AI:13, page 48. (29) Southern Swedish database, which cites Emmislöv church book F:2, page 80. (30) Marriage appears in southern Swedish database, which cites the source Emmislöv church book E:1, page 41. Elna’s birth also appears in the database, which cites Emmislövs church book C:6, page 27. The household register for Östra Broby in church book AI:14, page 43, mentions that Elna had never been married. (31) The return is mentioned in household register from Östra Broby church book, AI:13, page 79. (32) The births of the two unnamed children and Emma Paulina are mentioned in the southern Sweden database, citing Östra Broby church book C:11, pages 27, 41 and 61. The death of one unnamed child is mentioned in the database, which cites Östra Broby church book F:2, page 363. (33) Emilia’s departure to America is noted in the Emmislöv household registers in church book A:12, page 12. See footnote 2 for information on the other women’s emigration. (34) The death and burial information is from the Swedish cemetery website http://gravar.se/.